What general factors are identified as primary deficits of social structure theories how would you e

Biological theories of crime

The first two units of the course introduce students to the dynamic interplay between theory and the logic of the scientific method in sociology. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health we examined if indicators of social bonds and turning points were predictors of criminal offending. As a consequence, levels of criminal activity also change. Zero population growth ZPG The situation that occurs when the population of a nation or the world remains stable from one year to the next. Agnew looked at the role of parental bonds, finding that boys without fathers were more likely to be seized by police compared to those who had a father in the home. Sponsored mobility A pattern in which certain children are selected at an early age for academic and university education and are thus helped to achieve higher social status. An early but still influential radical explanation of crime was presented by Dutch criminologist Willem Bonger Emotion work An individual's effort to change an emotion or feeling to one that seems to be more appropriate to a given situation. Cooptation A social process by which people who might otherwise threaten the stability or existence of an organization are brought into the leadership or policy-making structure of that organization. Alienation The separation or estrangement of individuals from themselves and from others. Centrally planned economy An economic system that includes public ownership of or control over all productive resources and whose activity is planned by the government.

Gender differences Variations in the social positions, roles, behaviors, attitudes, and personalities of men and women in a society. Might you not succumb to the temptation to hang out with other offenders and even to commit new crime yourself?

Social bond theory

Kosterman, J. Collecting data from a broad representative sample has been encouraged by researchers who have stated that to effectively detect correlates of persistent crime or psychopathology it is best to utilize representative population samples rather than delinquent only samples Moffitt Legal protection The protection of minority-group members through the official policy of a governing unit. Labeling theory A theory of deviance that focuses on the process by which some people are labeled deviant by other people and thus take on deviant identities rather than on the nature of the behavior itself. A widely cited historical example of this view is Prohibition, which was the result of years of effort by temperance advocates, most of them from white, Anglo-Saxon, rural, and Protestant backgrounds, to ban the manufacture, sale, and use of alcohol. Theory A system of orienting ideas, concepts, and relationships that provides a way of organizing the observable world. That is, there are individuals who have a background that puts them at risk of criminal behaviour, and yet they manage to either remain non-offenders, or begin a criminal career but successfully desist after a while. Huang, R. Power elite According to Mills, a closely connected group of the corporate rich, political leaders, and military commanders who decide most key social and political issues. Cyclical theories Theories of social change suggesting that societies follow a certain life course, from vigorous and innovative youth to more materialistic maturity and then to decline.

Why were schools formed in various societies? Civil law The branch of law that deals largely with wrongs against the individual. It also requires that sociological researchers safeguard the human subjects who are a part of their research.

That is, there are individuals who have a background that puts them at risk of criminal behaviour, and yet they manage to either remain non-offenders, or begin a criminal career but successfully desist after a while.

White-collar crime Crimes committed by "respectable" individuals, often while they practice their occupations-- for example, embezzling money or stealing computer time.

social control theory

This represents pathological behaviour, is lifelong, and may be treatment resistant.

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An Introduction to Sociology